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**[**Hide**]** (107.1KB, 1309x430) So it turns out GTP is just a progression of a thought experiment stated by Claude Shannon in the 1950.
Truly there is nothing new under the sun.
3. THE SERIES OF APPROXIMATIONS TO ENGLISH
To give a visual idea of how this series of processes approaches a language, typical sequences in the approximations to English have been constructed and are given below. In all cases we have assumed a 27-symbol
“alphabet,” the 26 letters and a space.
1. Zero-order approximation (symbols independent and equiprobable).
XFOML RXKHRJFFJUJ ZLPWCFWKCYJ FFJEYVKCQSGHYD QPAAMKBZAACIBZLHJQD.
2. First-order approximation (symbols independent but with frequencies of English text).
OCRO HLI RGWR NMIELWIS EU LL NBNESEBYA THEEI ALHENHTTPA OOBTTVA
NAH BRL.
3. Second-order approximation (digram structure as in English).
ON IE ANTSOUTINYS ARE T INCTORE ST BE S DEAMY ACHIN D ILONASIVE TUCOOWE AT TEASONARE FUSO TIZIN ANDY TOBE SEACE CTISBE.
4. Third-order approximation (trigram structure as in English).
IN NO IST LAT WHEY CRATICT FROURE BIRS GROCID PONDENOME OF DEMONSTURES OF THE REPTAGIN IS REGOACTIONA OF CRE.
5. First-order word approximation. Rather than continue with tetragram, n-gram structure it is easier
and better to jump at this point to word units. Here words are chosen independently but with their
appropriate frequencies.
REPRESENTING AND SPEEDILY IS AN GOOD APT OR COME CAN DIFFERENT NATURAL HERE HE THE A IN CAME THE TO OF TO EXPERT GRAY COME TO FURNISHES
THE LINE MESSAGE HAD BE THESE.
6. Second-order word approximation. The word transition probabilities are correct but no further structure is included.
THE HEAD AND IN FRONTAL ATTACK ON AN ENGLISH WRITER THAT THE CHARACTER OF THIS POINT IS THEREFORE ANOTHER METHOD FOR THE LETTERS THAT
THE TIME OF WHO EVER TOLD THE PROBLEM FOR AN UNEXPECTED.
The resemblance to ordinary English text increases quite noticeably at each of the above steps. Note that
these samples have reasonably good structure out to about twice the range that is taken into account in their
construction. Thus in (3) the statistical process insures reasonable text for two-letter sequences, but four-
letter sequences from the sample can usually be fitted into good sentences. In (6) sequences of four or more
words can easily be placed in sentences without unusual or strained constructions. The particular sequence
of ten words “attack on an English writer that the character of this” is not at all unreasonable. It appears then
that a sufficiently complex stochastic process will give a satisfactory representation of a discrete source.
The first two samples were constructed by the use of a book of random numbers in conjunction with
(for example 2) a table of letter frequencies. This method might have been continued for (3), (4) and (5),
since digram, trigram and word frequency tables are available, but a simpler equivalent method was used.
To construct (3) for example, one opens a book at random and selects a letter at random on the page. This
letter is recorded. The book is then opened to another page and one reads until this letter is encountered.
The succeeding letter is then recorded. Turning to another page this second letter is searched for and the
succeeding letter recorded, etc. A similar process was used for (4), (5) and (6). It would be interesting if
further approximations could be constructed, but the labor involved becomes enormous at the next stage.